Road grading consists of using a motor grader to restore the driving surface and drainage attributes to roads.

The operator will remove washboards, potholes and other irregularities by cutting the surface of the road or filling them with material moved back and forth across the road with the road grader. Prior to the construction activity the design information has to be moved from the plan to the ground. This is accomplished by staking. Slope stakes are an effective way to insure compliance with the design standards and to keep soil disturbance to an absolute minimum. Various staking methods can be employed. Stakes, marking various road design points, are typically obliterated during the clearing and grubbing phase. In order to relocate the stakes (centerline, slope stakes) it is helpful to establish reference points outside the clearing limits. Reference points should be set at least 3 to 5 meters behind the uphill clearing limits. On the average, reference points (or RP's) should be set at least every 70 to 100 meters. Typically, reference points are placed at points where the center line alignment can be easily re-established, such as points of curvature.

The method and equipment used in road construction is an important economic and design factor in road location and subsequent design. A road to be built by an operator whose only equipment is a bulldozer requires a different design than a road to be built by a contractor equipped with hydraulic excavator, scrapers, and bulldozer. A bulldozer can be used in all phases of road construction from excavation and drainage installation to final grading. The front end loader performs well in soft material. Front end log loaders can be fitted with a bucket extending their usefulness under the correct conditions.

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